Russia Meddles in Western, Northern Europe

Russia has increased its meddling in European countries outside the former Soviet bloc recently. Moscow’s support for populist parties – including France’s National Front, Italy’s Five Star Movement, and Britain’s UK Independence Party – has shown tangible results. During the French presidential election this year, for example, centrist candidate – and now French President – Emmanuel Macron’s campaign was hacked, leading to an outcry from those who accused Russia of orchestrating the attack.

“The most important thing is that we recognize the reality of what we deal with, [Russian President Vladimir] Putin, and we recognize that he is trying to break the North Atlantic alliance,” U.S. Defense Secretary James Mattis said at his Senate confirmation hearing.

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