Germany, Japan Strengthen Defensive Capabilities

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More than seven decades after the end of World War II, Germany and Japan – two societies with complicated relationships with armed conflict – are building up defense capabilities.

Germany moved toward a more robust defensive posture in 2014, after Russia’s invasion of eastern Ukraine and annexation of Crimea. “That was the game-changer for the Germans,” Christian Mölling, Deputy Director at the Research Institute of the German Council on Foreign Relations (DGAP), tells The Cipher Brief. “The Russians have triggered a reason for having a larger and more capable armed forces, which we haven’t had for a very long time.”

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