President Donald Trump’s wooing of Chinese President Xi Jinping has so far failed to deliver the results he promised since their first summit meeting in April at his Mar-a-Lago compound in Florida, according to the 2017 annual report by the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission. The bipartisan, Congressionally-mandated commission ...

U.S. President Donald Trump this week decided to launch an investigation into Chinese practices on intellectual property. The move angered Beijing, which said the trade probe would violate international rules. The World Trade Organization (WTO) has for the past few decades been the supreme arbiter of trade disputes between countries, ...

The recently agreed framework for a Europe-Japan free trade agreement could not provide a clearer indication as to the changing of the guard in terms of free trade leadership. At a time when the United States is following an America-First trade policy, it is Germany and Japan that are now ...

In keeping with his America First agenda, President Donald Trump is pushing ahead with the promised new direction in U.S. trade and international economic policy. On July 17, the Trump Administration released a 17-page guideline outlining its ambitious goals for renegotiating the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), top officials ...

Retired Admiral James Stavridis believes the Trump Administration fails to recognize the importance of our oceans.  In his new book Sea Power: The History and Geopolitics of the World’s Oceans, Stavridis is troubled by the U.S. withdrawal from the Paris climate accord and a proposed budget that boosts military spending, ...

The McKinsey Global Institute estimated last year that digital trade has a greater impact on economic growth, measured by a nation’s Gross Domestic Product, than traditional trade in goods and services. The McKinsey study said that digital trade volume has grown 4500 percent since 2005 and is projected to increase ...

In recent years, global trade growth has slowed significantly, even creeping below global GDP growth at a level that hasn’t been seen in decades. Some economists believe globalization has reached a natural upper limit.  Others argue that the data does not reflect true stagnation or that new forces driving trade ...

Trade growth has been running flat against GDP growth since 2012. According to the World Trade Organization (WTO), global trade volumes grew just 1.3 percent in 2016. This year, the WTO forecasts that this number will recover to 2.4 percent in 2017 -- roughly equivalent to GDP growth. For many economists, ...

U.S. President Donald Trump marked his 100th day in office with an executive order calling for a review of U.S. trade deals, as well as its membership in the World Trade Organization. The order follows statements earlier in the week threatening to terminate or renegotiate NAFTA and the U.S. free ...

Forgive free-trade advocates for being a bit disoriented this year. The vertigo hit hard in January, when trade’s most notable defender at the World Economic Forum meeting in Davos, Switzerland, was not from the West but from the East. “Say no to protectionism,” Chinese President Xi Jinping urged in his ...

Investment priorities and trends have changed as China’s economy and those of its African partners continue to develop. Chinese firms see an opportunity for lucrative, large-scale construction projects, while African governments see Chinese banks – with less stringent borrowing requirements than those of Western banks or multilateral development banks – ...

On April 6 – the same day Ivanka Trump and Jared Kushner dined with President Xi and his wife at Mar-a-Lago – the Chinese government provisionally approved three of the trademarks, according to the Associated Press, effectively giving Ivanka’s company monopoly rights to sell her brand of accessories and spa services ...

Decades ago, China saw economic partnerships with African nations as a means of securing political support. As China’s economy has evolved towards export manufacture, its interests shifted to gaining access to Africa’s bountiful natural resources. Today, in China’s diversifying economy, state-owned and private companies are seeking new opportunities across the ...

As China’s economic interests in Africa have expanded, its security interests have kept pace, to protect Chinese nationals and assets across the continent.  To that end, China has invested heavily in multinational organizations such as the African Union and the United Nations and has shown commitment to regional stability. The ...

The United States has been the standard-bearer for free trade, multilateralism, and globalization since the end of World War II. However, as the Trump administration seems to back away from that historic role, new powers like China are rushing – at least rhetorically – to take advantage of the strategic ...

Since taking office in January, President Donald Trump has backed up the protectionist – and even isolationist – rhetoric of his campaign with concrete action. In a flurry of activity, the president has confirmed his intent not to pursue ratification of the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) trade treaty, signed two executive ...

The presidency of Donald Trump has had a rocky start, punctuated by embarrassing personnel shakeups, sloppy messaging, and major policy changes. However, the administration has remained relatively consistent on one central economic theme, first introduced in the campaign and vigorously pursued after President Trump’s inauguration, that of “America First.” From ...

Since negotiations concluded for the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) in late 2015, observers have argued that Asian policymakers would interpret failure of the pact as a sign of America’s declining interest in the region or inability to assert leadership. Singapore's Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong warned in 2015, “Failing to get ...

The countries of the Pacific Alliance – a small Latin American trade bloc – will hold a summit next week in Vina del Mar, Chile. All eyes will be on another meeting, though, held on the sidelines of this summit. That meeting will bring together the remaining 11 members of ...

Just three days after his inauguration, President Donald Trump signed an executive order that confirmed his intent to abandon American participation in the Trans-Pacific Partnership. Barring an about-face from Washington, the TPP as negotiated may now be dead. However, the deal includes 11 other Asia-Pacific economies, including Japan and Canada, ...

President Donald Trump confirmed his intention to abandon American participation in the Trans-Pacific Partnership after signing an executive order on the subject in January. However, this does not necessarily mean that TPP is dead. The United States was the most important partner in the agreement but the deal includes 11 ...

President Trump said he wants to improve relations with China, but he has expressed concern with China’s theft of intellectual property, unfair taxes for U.S. companies in China, currency manipulation, product dumping and failing to reign in North Korea.  He took a congratulatory call from the President of Taiwan and ...

For years, China's GDP has soared under its hybrid model of a free-market and command economy. But as growth slows and debt levels rise, are cracks forming in this model that Beijing cannot control? Timothy Heath's article, published on December 14th, explores the implications of these economic and political dynamics. ...

During his campaign, President-elect Donald Trump repeatedly slammed the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) as a "bad deal" that would harm U.S. workers and export jobs to Asia. He has promised to renegotiate the agreement, or more likely, back out altogether. Assuming that Trump follows through with his campaign promises, The Cipher ...

The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has stitched the economies of Mexico, Canada, and the United States together since 1994. However, over those twenty-plus years, criticism and controversy have continuously dogged the free trade pact. To U.S. opponents of the deal, NAFTA represents the kind of rampant globalization that ...

President-elect Donald Trump consistently lambasted the North American Free Trade Association (NAFTA) as a "the worst deal, possibly in history," one which unfairly disadvantages American workers. He has promised to renegotiate the agreement, or possibly even get rid of it altogether. However, critics contend that the effect of degrading trade ...

President-elect Donald Trump will tell Canada and Mexico – our NAFTA partners – that we intend to “immediately renegotiate the terms of that agreement,” and if not, “we will submit notice that the U.S. intends to withdraw from the deal.” The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) can be strengthened ...

In April this year, eight former U.S. Defense Secretaries jointly signed a letter to Congress. That letter did not ask for a change in military spending or comment on a new weapons system, but instead, it urged Congress to consider a matter of trade. In particular, the signatories focused on ...

As Brexit-induced uncertainty continues to roil international markets, the U.S. Congress may soon deliver a second punch to the gut of the global economy. Congressional failure to ratify the Trans-Pacific Partnership agreement this year would foreclose the only realistic option for meaningful global trade liberalization for years to come and ...

For America’s foreign policy establishment, the Trans Pacific Partnership (TPP) is a grand “twofer.” It will improve U.S. national security by countering China’s growing economic, political, and military power in the Asia-Pacific region. At the same time, it will stimulate U.S. exports and thereby reduce the chronic U.S. trade deficit ...

The Trans Pacific Partnership may be a signed deal, but it is far from seeing the light of day.  Following seven years of mostly secret negotiations, 12 member countries signed the TPP last week in New Zealand, taking the first step in uniting more than 40 percent of the world’s ...

In New Zealand on 4 February, trade ministers from the twelve signatories to the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) formally signed the pact, an important step towards lowering trade barriers and introducing new rules governing trade and investment among some of the Asia-Pacific region’s largest economies. However, while signing the agreement was ...

There has been a good deal of hype touting the recently concluded Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) agreement as the first “21st Century” trade pact.   Whether it lives up to this high accolade is currently under debate, both in the United States and among the 11 other TPP member states.  But in ...

Chinese President Xi Jinping began 2016 with a tour through the Middle East, visiting Saudi Arabia, Iran, and Egypt in hopes of strengthening ties and increasing Chinese influence in the region. The trip was part of the “One Belt, One Road” (OBOR) initiative, a strategy proposed by Xi in 2013 ...

In 2012, China’s President Xi Jinping announced the “One Belt, One Road” Initiative (OBOR) when visiting Indonesia and Kazakhstan. OBOR has since dominated discourse among China’s media and foreign policy analysts. However, the rest of the world is overlooking the initiative’s groundbreaking significance, which essentially amounts to a new Chinese ...