Philip Zelikow is the White Burkett Miller Professor of History at the University of Virginia, where he has also served as dean of the Graduate School and director of the Miller Center of Public Affairs. His scholarly work has focused on critical episodes in American and world history. Before and during his academic career he has served at all levels of American government, including as a career foreign service officer. His federal service during five administrations has included positions in the White House, State Department, and the Pentagon. He also was the executive director of the 9/11 Commission, as well as an earlier bipartisan commission on election reform, chaired by former presidents Carter and Ford, that led to the Help America Vote Act of 2002. A former member of the Intelligence Advisory Boards for President Bush and for President Obama, he was also a member of the Defense Policy Board for Secretary Carter.